Origins of the Yayoi people

Yayoi linked to Yangtze area: DNA tests reveal similarities to early wet-rice farmers
“Some of the first wet-rice farmers in Japan might have migrated from the lower basin of China’s Yangtze River more than 2,000 years ago, Japanese and Chinese researchers said Thursday.
This was suggested by DNA tests conducted by the researchers that showed genetic similarities between human remains from the Yayoi Period found in southwestern Japan and the early Han Dynasty found in China’s central Jiangsu Province, Satoshi Yamaguchi told reporters.
People who introduced irrigation techniques to the Japanese archipelago in the Yayoi Period (250 B.C.-300) were believed to have come to Japan either from the Korean Peninsula across the Tsushima Strait, or from northern China across the Yellow Sea.
The latest findings, however, bolster another theory suggesting the origin of the Yayoi people was an area south of the Yangtze, which is believed to be the birthplace of irrigated rice cultivation.
Yamaguchi, a researcher at Japan’s National Science Museum, said the researchers compared Yayoi remains found in Yamaguchi and Fukuoka prefectures with those from early Han (202 B.C.-8) in Jiangsu in a three-year project begun in 1996.
The researchers found many similarities between the skulls and limbs of Yayoi people and the Jiangsu remains.
Two Jiangsu skulls showed spots where the front teeth had been pulled, a practice common in Japan in the Yayoi and preceding Jomon Period.
But the most persuasive findings resulted from tests revealing that genetic samples from three of 36 Jiangsu skeletons also matched part of the DNA base arrangements of samples from the Yayoi remains, the scientists said. ”

This suggests the relationship between the Japanese and Chinese based on an argument of their ancestral tribes.

Source: Trussel News

user posted image

This blood type unlike what we are accustomed to is called GM blood type was a method used by the Japanese Doctor Matsumoto to answer his own question of “Where are the Japanese from?”.  According to him, everyone must originate from somewhere and this natural curiosity instigated him into making the map above.
ag – presented in Japanese by around 50% concentration. Over 60% in Ainu and 40% in Northern Han.
ab3st – Presented in Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Ainu, and Eskimos.
afb1b3 – Constitute most of the Thailand population and even more in Borneo.
axg – Presented in all Asians, most people, little or none in black and white.
fb1b3 – White
fb1c – n/a
ab1c – Black
ab1b3 – Central Africa and black.
ab3s – n/a

27 responses to “Origins of the Yayoi people

  1. Korean1Professor

    1) You cannot ignore geographical location. Korean Peninsula is closer to Japan rather then Yangzte river to Japan.

    2) Jomon and Yayoi Tribe came from Korean Peninsula.

    3) Chinese never had direct contact with Japanese Islanders. All contacts were done
    by Koreans.

    4) Majority of 80 percent of Japanese nobles traces to Korean origin ( Korguryo, Paekje, Shilla Kingdoms).

    5) Kansai area you will find more ” Kudara” Paekje signs then any Chinese Kingdoms.

    • You are perfectly right, professor, and I also think Korea is underestimated in the map. Korea and Japan are and nowhere in the world so similar nations situated so near. Only YDNA haplogroup D is prevalent in Japan and C is a bit more in Korea. Korean actors, sportsmen, dishes rae so popular in Japan.

    • Queen Himiko, when asked by Chinese ambassadors, said that her royal house descended from princes in East China. Do you think this could refer to a Dongyi migration from Shandong to southernmost Korea (Kaya) where they blended with Tungusics and thereafter invaded Jomon Japan as the Yayoi? Korean (like Japanese) has a substrate which sets it apart from the Altaic languages. Dongyi is supposed to have been related to Hmong, and was not Sinitic. Do you think a Dongyi influx into Korea might account for the non-Altaic part of Korean?

      • “descended from princes in East China” which translation is that? Do you have a reference? As far as I know, she is known to have been referred to as Ruler of Heaven in the land where the sun rises in the east – or something akin to that – which upset the Chinese emperor since the title was reserved only for Chinese rulers, and which meant Queen Himiko was elevating her status to a similar level. Queen Himiko ethnic origins (or that of her lineage) are definitely debateable – depending on whether you place Yamatai-koku or her resting place in Kyushu or Kansai. The shamanic practices (are Central Asian/pan-Siberian) but the earliest of the keyhole tomb architecture that Queen Himiko was contemporaneous with would place her as being possibly related to Gaya/Kaya kingdoms or other arguments have been made for Silla or proto-Paekche/Mahan lineages.

    • this is what is traditional believed because of proximity but f there is evidence especially of an origin prior to more recent migration of Koreans we cannot ignore it just because people want the Yoyoi/Japanese people to be from Korea. It’s all a matter of when not if.

  2. At a small part of ideas the korean professor may be is correct. But why the today koreans are taller than the today Japanese?
    Why the Jomon and Yayoi Tribes came from Korean Peninsula and did not happen the opposite?
    If the Jomon live for 14.000 years in Japan how many years live the koreans in their country?
    When started finishing the last ice age?
    Were human movements be possible for thousands of miles with tempretures below zero?
    Who much food did they have with them for so long distance trips? Was it possible found food at those deggrees?
    Please answer. Thank you.

    • This is very poor scientific reasoning based solely on appearance. Diet is a major factor in physical differences like height specifically protein content.

  3. May be barbecue eating makes you taller than fish eating.

  4. These people sure had the best way to live, I love Your blog and the information you have on it, life was so simple looking in these times. It seems like a wonderful way of living with no worries or bills. It’s like the our father prayer, give us this day our daily bread, what a wonderful way in living

  5. Does anyone think that the Yayoi people might have been Dongyi refugees from Shandong mixed with Tungusics? I hear that the Dongyi might have been related to the Hmong, and this may be why Japanese is different from Altaic. I have also heard that the Yezo (Jomon) were somewhat different from the Ainu, though both spoke Austroasiatic, and that the Ainu originally spoke a Uralic -related language close to Yukaghir. I have also heard that the Jomon had Melanesian blood, and that the Kumaso and Hayato of Kyushu were Austronesian from Taiwan. Thoughts, anyone?

    • Dongyi is a vague term used to refer to groups that occupied Eastern China and so it is probably not helpful or would be impossible to establish if Dongyi peoples formed the Gaya/Kaya populations. It is however possible to try to investigate which genetic lineages out of East China are the most likely ones that made it into Korean peninsula and ending terminally in Japan while comparing the archaeological evidence. For the Gaya period, I am assuming we shan’t be looking at the deeper layer and earlier peopling of Korea and Paleolithic-to-Jomon Japan by the C1 http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2010/05/origin-and-dispersal-of-y-chromosome.html coastal lineages (M130) from the south or the Buryat-related migrations from of the Altai-Baikal area http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3378/1534-6617-80.3.239?journalCode=hbio / https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/lan/en/atlas.html
      For the Yayoi period, we can see archaeological evidence pointing to migrations from the Shandong area (Jiangsu http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news111.htm), Fujian southern complex, but also from Mahan related societies in Korean (bronze bell and dagger cultures). Hmong tribal contributions have been suggested (The Eastward Spread of the Hmong Culture Guodong LI http://bbs.3miao.net/thread-47455-1-1.html / Genetic structure of Hmong-speaking populations… http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/3/725.full Y chromosomes of prehistoric people along the Yangtze River) because HM people, descendants of Daxi culture, carry the M7, G, G2 (as well as Y-DNA O3a3b) could have carried these genes to Japan. However, another likely contender for the M7 (and Y-DNA O3a3b) gene carrying population could be She or Bunu because She populations cluster the closest and according to one Y-DNA hg C study as well. There may also have been a strong Austro-asiatic migratory contribution from Y-DNA haplogroup O2b (SRY465, M176) which is exclusively found among the Korean, Japanese, Thai, Vietnamese and Indonesian populations. There are those who speculate that these are the Chinese continental contributions to Japanese populations: O2a-M95* 1.90% Yue (Jiangnan) / O2b-SRY 7.70% Mo(Harbin) / O2b1-47z 22.00% Ye(Yalijiang)/ O3-M122* 6.60% Yan(Liao)/ O3a4-LINE1 3.10% Miao(Yangze) / O3a3c-M134 10.40% Ji 箕(Shanxi) – but I don’t see any evidence on the archaeological side to corroborate this. I have huge problems with all of these “too-specific” tracing theories that pinpoint a specific tribe or city. The closest we can get to the picture is I think is the probable and rough regional origin of a particular Japanese haplogroup-lineage. Like as not, East Asia is the probable origin of more than one haplogroup lineage migrating through Korea or directly to Japan. For help on East Asian lineages, for example, we could take a look at this mtDNA map of M7; M7a (in situ branched off its own M7); M7b (China) and M7c (Sabah or Philippines from the south) http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/10/1737/F3.large.jpg – The Emerging Twigs of the East Asian mtDNA Tree http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/10/1737.full. It is suggested in the article though that all the M7 populations separated in Japan and Korea during Jomon times (which is now supported by newer studies that say agriculture (millet) and rice cultivation began in Jomon times far earlier than the supposed traditional Yayoi period. It appears that Japan was probably the terminus for a great many incoming migrating lineages. Looking at the branches of the M7 twig, you can see Japan’s M7a alongside with China, Korea or Island SEA. Haplogroups B5, B6 could be indicative of Austronesian migrations that brought neolithic culture and perhaps megalithic culture (dolmens, jar burials) although the latter are generally thought to have come from Korea because of Kyushu’s proximity (Tracing the Austronesian footprint…http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/10/1737.full). (Possible source of other mtDNA hg lineages: F1b (frequent in Central Asians and Mongols, Koreans) and hgs A http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/10/1737/F4.large.jpg and B http://wapedia.mobi/en/Haplogroup_B_(mtDNA)).
      Blood immunoglobin marker studies show prevalent in Japanese populations are the Caucasoid Gm ag and axggenes northern genes Eurasian/Caucasian “Northern Mongoloid” Gm ab3st components as well as “Southern Mongoloid” afb1b3 genes http://www.geocities.jp/ikoh12/kennkyuuno_to/gm_genes_by_hideo_matsumoto.html.
      Given the high northern gene markers, we can surmise there may also have been South Siberian lineages coming to Japan from the late Yayoi period through the Kofun periods although the high Northern Mongoloid marker showing can be most probably attributed to Baikal-Buryat migrations. Iranian and Uralian populations may have contributed some of the northern Caucasoid genes. Studies show the Mongoloid F1b gene is more frequent in Central Asians and Mongols, Koreans, and Japanese. Gaya/Kofun period horse/weapon tomb artefacts have similarities to those of the Ordos Culture http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordos_culture (which is possibly related to the Xiongnu culture) – who are thought to have genetic descendants in the Daurs http://www.ethnic-china.com/Daur/daurintro.htm of Inner Mongoli a (carriers of O2b Y-DNA) http://www.ethnic-china.com/Daur/daurintro.htm. (who also possibly synomymous with or have affinities to the Manchurians who were also 02b carriers-and the Qidan ancestors of Daurs http://china.org.cn/english/2001/Aug/16896.htm).

    • you are reasoning from a point of view of language similarities/differences? this is nonsense. Japanese people are an island nation so the isolation could produce any variation of language but of course written language is almost exclusively a result of exposure to Chinese literature.

  6. Re your question about the Ezo (Emishi) and the Jomon, the Emishi website has a number of persuasive theories: Who were the Emishi http://emishi-ezo.net/WhoEmishi.htm / see also Emishi, Kofun Culture and the Expansion of Yamato http://emishi-ezo.net/emishi_kofun.html / Jomon Culture and the Emishi http://emishi-ezo.net/jomon.html

  7. Korean1Professor

    Modern day Koreans and japanese share O2b Korean genes. O2b is shared by 72 percent among modern day japanese.

  8. So…this would mean that the modern day Japanese are descendents from the Han Chinese.

    Also, there is a legend popular in China and Japan about Xu Fu, who came to Japan searching for the elixir of life. He brought with him 500 boys and 500 girls, and the legend concluded that he settled in Japan & became the first emperor of Japan. (Coincidentally, those 500 boys and 500 girls would be the ancestors of the modern day Japanese)

  9. I’m sorry but that is a legend. And again, if there were actually 500 girls and boys going to Japan, the Chinese people must have noticed about the settlement. The two countries’ must have had a real close bond with each other since the Japanese people (from the legend) must have originally come XU FU people. Ironically, both did not have a great relationship and funny thing is that the Japanese people actually ADOPTED things from China and Korea back then. If your legend is true, why would they adopt the techniques? They have the culture and the technology already.

    • your reasoning is flawed. They would adopt new technologies that developed after they had moved into Japan. but anyway it is a myth.

  10. Glacial maximum happened at 23kyp and yayoi is around 20kyp. At that time, taiwan was connected to mainland and lots of east china sea was land. So from hong kong/taiwan/japan/korea/land at east china sea was jomon. Sea level began rising and I think that was part of reason why these people migrated to americas as well as back toward se asia and eventually became polynesian.

  11. ชาคริต กุลไกรศรี

    Korea peninsula was a part of China at the Han dynasty period, that was the same time of Yayoi civilization in Japan. At the time there’s only China in the regions that can build a huge ship that carry thousands of people to the Japan Island, Koreans were a small tribes in the emerging civilization that had no capacity to do a huge project like that.

    • No offense but i think you are getting the mathematics a little wrong. Yayoi culture did not emerge out of nowhere. Yayoi culture existed because the immigrants came, and the beggining of the yayoi culture was before the Han expansion to Korea. This would mean that to start the Yayoi, rather than a continual expansion of Han china which is hard to happen (because they would have had to settle the Korean penninsula before a succeding expansion), a pre-existing Korean civilization sending people to Japan would be more reliable. The current hypothesis that the joint research team of korea and japan suggested was that the Wiman Joseon dynasty of korea fell under the Han empire and its refugees sailed all the way to japan creating the yayoi culture. You see, though there are very few records left about Wiman Joseon, the records suggest that Wiman became a well established nation developed enough to match its powers with some of the strongest chinese warring states era kingdoms, thanks to the Chinese immigrants. This resembles a lot of the beggining of the Yayoi, too. Furthurmore, if Han chinese were first to immigrate to Japan then they would have had information on the land at the beggining, which they didn’t. Not much direct Chinese effect on Japanese grounds before 5th century A.D are found while there are bunchfull of Korean-styled tombs, bronze swords, jewerlies found in Japan, too. Han chinese declined the entire penninsula only after two or more centuries, and they had lost the control of the southern part even earlier. Considering that Yayoi culture thrived even when Han chinese withdraw korea, it would be more likely that Korean refugees consistantly immigrated to kushu and eventually started the yayoi, which became the Yamato civilization along with the Korean kingdoms like Baekjae, Goguryeo, Silla, Gaya, etc.

    • your reasoning is flawed. There was a land bridge from Korea. Why would you need a huge ship to cross the Yellow sea? and why would thousands need to come at once? You make many assumptions.

  12. why couldn’t the Yayoi people be a combo of both Koreans and Chinese and anyone else who paddled there?

  13. most believe the Chines during the Qin Dynasty had something to do with the Yayoi because of the technologies found (Bronze artifacts etc.)

    • The evidence, both archaeological and genetic, points to multiple origins and sources, depending on location in Japan, And even on any particular one island, there are different communities of different origins, co-existing, consolidating or in a state of flux. There are three different genetic strains of Yayoi rice isolated (found fairly evenly distributed throughout Japan up to the northeastern boundaries), one is Korean, another is a strain not found in Korea, and the third is a hybrid. The material culture of the Yayoi is also mixed, of Korean, Chinese, and not discounting others of undetermined (but quickly clarifying) Eurasian origins. The main pottery and rice implements, that spread through Yayoi Japan, nevertheless, resemble Korean ones most. News articles like this one, we need to remember only present a snapshot of a place in a specific time. The Japanese island populations whether during Jomon, Yayoi and Kofun eras, were always heterogenous … despite the ostensible overarching similarities.

    • I would also be careful to assume that because any excavated evidence is associated with tribes or relic sites from certain locations in Qin-China or Korea, that they are necessarily Chinese or Korean … Depending on the era, the evidence could equally point to a foreign tribe entering or invading or settling China or Korea at the time. There are recent scholarly articles indicating non-Han Chinese tribes, genetic and material culture) during Qin, Xia, Shang and Zhou, particularly in the Southwest, but also all along the Yangtze and/ Yellow River to the East. Keeping an open mind and thinking in terms of migrant lineages, and also allowing for the possibility of parallel downstream (cousin) lineages as opposed to derived populations, would allow for better success in the work of piecing together the complex prehistoric-protohistoric peopling scenes.

  14. You make NO SENSE when it comes to the origins of the Japanese. Yayoi is clearly Korean and the fact there is Yayoi in Jiangsu merely testifies that the Yayoi was ALSO located down there. Japanese language is SOV JUST LIKE KOREAN unlike the Chinese Mandarin language. O2b is MOSTLY found in Korea and Japan as well. Korean and Japanese have nearly the same GM blood type! There has been Japanese scholars who claim that Japanese are Korean and not Chinese. The Emperor of Japan states he has Korean lineage – Baekje Kingdom – and Baekje had 22 colonial sites from Japan all the way down to Vietnam/Indonesia! Many of Japanese coveted national treasures are KOREAN! Chinese and the Japanese have been trying to downplay Korea’s heritage when in fact Korea is THE FAR EAST nation. Manchurians who are even more related to the Koreans had RULED China for hundreds of years and in Manchurian HISTORY BOOKS they claim they were Koreans! Manchu leader Nurhachi offered Korea help against the Japanese Invasion. This explains why Manchurians NEVER absorbed Korea in their Empire because they considered it there mother country. There is NO CHINA. Northern Chinese are not the same people of Southern China! “Han” Chinese is a myth perpetuated by the PRC in order to brainwash their people to hold the country together. “China” has always been controlled by the Northern Asiatics. Hongshan neolithic culture is one of the oldest neolithic culture and it is up there by inner Mongolia. Hongshan is Korean NOT Chinese! Sima Qian who wrote Chinese history was mostly lies! They STOLE “Han” from the Koreans and applied it to these Sichuan Asiatics. This is why the PRC is so secretive in their archaeological excavations on Hongshan and other archaeological excavations. If Korea was so backward then why wasn’t it taken over by the “Chinese?” The only reason Korea was so close to the Ming Empire was because the Yongle Emperor, Zhu Di, was HALF-KOREAN! His mother was taken from the Mongols (Mongols forced Korean royalty to marry Mongol Royalty but Zhu Di’s mother was just a concubine). Zhu DI moved the capital which was safer down south up to BEIJING closer to the Mongols and Jurchens! Why? Because HE FELT KINSHIP to them despite the dangers of invasion. He ask Korea to send women (concubines), cooks, and other men (to become eunuchs which Zhu DI’s father hated and distrusted). Working with Korea they helped curb the Jurchen invasion and the Jurchens were in a good economic position created by the half Korean Ming Emperor. There is NO CHINA! Japanese are Koreans through and through which is why Korea and Japan dominate the automobile, electronic, and other industries. Japanese imperialism in WW2 was just a continuation of Baekje’s colonialism! One last thing, Gutenberg didn’t change the world it was Korea – Look up Jikji on youtube!

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