Yomiuri Shimbun reports: Earwax map may show the early distributions and origins of Jomon and Yayoi populations

Earwaxmap.jpg Earwax map picture by Heritageofjapan According to a study of types of earwax carried out by student teams, people living in Japan during the Jomon period (ca 10,000 B.C.-ca 300 B.C.) carried the gene for wet earwax. The study produced a map on which the darker shaded areas show the distribution of today’s populations with wet earwax. The study also showed the gene that was responsible for dry earwax is more common in western Japan and that it was introduced into Japan by people who came from the Asian continent during the Yayoi period (ca 300 B.C.-ca A.D. 300) or later. Earwax map charts history of Japan A team of high school students has drawn up a map charting the prevalence of different earwax types–wet and dry–by prefecture. Presented at a recent conference of a scientific society, the map is expected to contribute to tracing the migration patterns of ancient people in Japan. Based on the theory that a specific gene determines human earwax type, the student team studied frequencies of the gene for dry earwax, which is said to be common in Japan. The map is the fruit of collaboration between students of 42 of the 101 so-called super science high schools (SSH) around the nation–institutions designated by the Education, Science and Technology Ministry as focused on mathematics and science education. Sample nail clippings from 771 students in 32 prefectures–20-50 from each participating school–were collected. Students at Nagasaki Nishi High School extracted DNA from the nail samples, isolating the gene that determines earwax types, in cooperation with Nagasaki University. Using data from the samples, the student team found that the gene responsible for dry earwax is more common in western Japan. That tallies with an earlier study by Norio Niikawa, a professor at the Health Science University of Hokkaido, who found that people living in Japan during the Jomon period (ca 10,000 B.C.-ca 300 B.C.) carried the gene for wet earwax, while the gene for dry earwax was introduced into Japan by people who came from the Asian continent during the Yayoi period (ca 300 B.C.-ca A.D. 300) or later.

(Sep. 19, 2007)  The Yomiuri Shimbun


Referencing  a table on ethnic groups and the rate on earwax type, the students knew that the percentage of wet earwax occurence in the different ethnic populations was as follows:

Black people: 100%

European: 100%

Micronesian: 60%

Chinese Taipei: 40%

Japanese: 16%

Mongol: 12%

Korean: 85%

Chinese: 4%

Tungusic: Hardly any

They also knew that ear wax type was determined by a specific gene and that about 85% of Japanese are genetically predisposed to have dry type ear wax.

The students then collected fingernail clippings from 771 students living in 32 provinces, extracted the DNA from each sample, and isolated the gene that determines ear wax type.

When they charted their results on a map, an odd pattern emerged showing that the gene responsible for dry earwax is more prevalent in western Japan. Experts conclude that the aboriginal population of Japan (called “Jomon” people) carried the gene for wet ear wax and that the Yayoi people who migrated to Japan from Asia about 2,000 years ago carried the gene for dry earwax gene for dry earwax. The distribution map of current  earwax types in Japan created by the students reinforces the existing theory that Japan was invaded from the west from the Asian mainland and those invaders gradually spread to the rest of the country, moving east and north while displacing and/or absorbing the aboriginal population.


Sources and more on this topic:

The worldwide distribution of the wet earwax alleles:



A SNP in the ABCC11 gene is the determinant of human earwax type Nature Genetics 38, 324 – 330 (2006) doi:10.1038/ng1733

Japanese map of the earwax gene frequency: a nationwide collaborative study by Super Science High School ConsortiumJ Hum Genet. 2009 Sep;54(9):499-503. Epub 2009 Jul 31.

Ear Wax Reveals Mystery Feb 7, 2008

Japanese Scientists Identify Earwax Gene NY Times Jan 29, 2006

12 responses to “Yomiuri Shimbun reports: Earwax map may show the early distributions and origins of Jomon and Yayoi populations

  1. Is there any correlation between haplogroup and earwax type?

  2. Koreans and Japanese share very high percentage Korean DNA 02b. Not sure ear wax is that irrelevant.

    • Earwax studies are absolutely relevant. 02b is a very ancient DNA form pre-4000 years ago and therefore pre-dates the state-building or state formation eras of East Asia. All this DNA indicates is that a high proportion of both the proto-Korean and proto-Japanese populations originate from the Mongolic tribes – specifically from the Uriankhai and Zakhchin peoples of western Mongolia, Daurs of Inner Mongolia (and detected only sporadically among Buryats and Udegeys) – who were likely located in Manchuria but could equally have been from somewhere further west since the movement of nomadic tribes in ancient times is uncertain. Even then, 02b is only found low frequency at between 4-8% in Japan (Korea 33%). 02b1 is however found at 22% among Yamato and Ryukyu populations (and at low frequencies in Korea) – the timing of its expansion after 4,000 years ago – these tell us 02b1 either evolved locally within the Proto-Yamato-Ryukyuan populations of Western Japan and is likely tied to the Yayoi culture expansion. To determine more differences between E. Asian and other Asian populations, we need to look at other types of data – virus-carriers, blood proteins, and earwax type, etc. Next, on earwax studies….

      Earwax comes in two types, wet and dry. The wet form predominates in Africa and Europe, where 97 percent or more of the people have it, and the dry form among East Asians, while populations of Southern and Central Asia are roughly half and half. By comparing the DNA of Japanese with each type, the researchers were able to identify the gene that controls which type a person has as reported in Nature Genetics: http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v38/n3/abs/ng1733.html.

      Earwax type is connected to the genes carried by the population. The earwax-affecting gene, known to geneticists as the ATP-binding cassette C11 gene, lies with three other genes in a long stretch of DNA that has very little variation from one person to another. Lack of variation in a sequence of DNA units is often the signature of a new gene so important for survival that it has swept through the population, erasing all the previous variation that had accumulated in the course of evolution. Researchers have found the switch of a single DNA unit in the gene determines whether a person has wet or dry earwax. The gene’s role seems to be to export substances out of the cells that secrete earwax. The single DNA change deactivates the gene and, without its contribution, a person has dry earwax. The single mutation in the earwax gene is one in which a G (for guanine) is replaced with an A (for adenine). People who inherit the version of the gene that has A from both parents have dry earwax. Those who carry two of the G versions, or one G and one A, are destined to live with wet earwax.

      The Japanese researchers studied the gene in 33 ethnic groups around the world. Since the wet form is so common in Africa and in Europe, this was likely to have been the ancestral form before modern humans left Africa 50,000 years ago. The dry form likely arose later somewhere in northern Asia, because it is detected almost universally in the researchers’ tests of northern Han Chinese and Koreans. From the analysis, it was found that the genetic variation associated with dry wax was documented in Koreans and northern Han Chinese. Africans and African Americans had a normal version of the gene and therefore had wet earwax. Low frequency of the genetic variation was also found amongst the French, Hungarians and Solomon Islanders. It was hypothesized that this mutation of the earwax gene could have originated in northeast Asia, spreading to other regions of the world as people migrated. The dry form becomes less common in southern Asia, probably because the northerners with the dry earwax gene intermarried with southern Asians carrying the default wet earwax gene. The dry form is quite common in Native Americans, confirming other genetic evidence that their ancestors migrated across the Bering straits from Siberia 15,000 years ago. Wet earwax is dominant in Ainu populations which is consistent with the theory of the Ainu being of southern coastal route (or alternative theory Eurasian/W.Asian origins) with recent Nivkh Siberian admixture. Since the rate of wet earwax type of Japanese stands at 16% much higher than that of the Korean 8%, when you have adjusted for population growth of incoming migrants (with their rice base and elite status) the expansion of northeastern continental genes, the indigenous populations’ growth of Jomon over the centuries to today – it stands to reason to say, that the substratum of the indigenous wet-earwax gene-carrying Jomon population must have been even more substantial through to the Kofun Period than we are able to grasp.

  3. Koreans have (02b very distinctive Korean DNA mark shared by Koreans 70 percent), ( 03 is from Southeast Asia DNA mark shared by Koreans 30 percent). Koreans, Mongolians, Manchurians, Japanese are related. Japanese share and have Korean distinctive DNA 70-80 percent in there DNA. Human earwax changes from Food and Geographical Environment. Human DNA never changes. Even skeleton carries on Human DNA.

  4. Do you think German, Anglo-British, Anglo- American earwax are same???

    • They are all wet type not dry type. Only NE Asians and SEA admixed with NEAsians have dry type since the gene for dry earwax type arose in NEAsia. It is well documented. Also if you had bothered to read my reply, you would understand the characteristic is controlled by genes, not diet and not mere geography as you say, although geography obviously is related to where the genetic mutation occurred and expanded. As for your use of use of genetic data, it is about interpretation and it is clear you have neither bothered to read all the genetic research but hang on to one or two poorly understood ideas (of 02b being Korean – again, 02b is not Korean, it is Mongolic and pre-Korean. what we allow you is that the recent 47z mutation IS the proper Korean paternal contribution to the modern Japanese populace and that is 22% and not 70% or 80% as you would have everybody believe). Your hangup with inserting statements everywhere about everything originating with Korea shows your intellectual dishonesty and your own nationalistic bias. Your further hangup and refusal to allow the Chinese Han any influence in Korea or China is even more perplexing given that that Korea also copied much from the Chinese including writing and Buddhism and sent missions to China, your willingness to ignore the rise of Shang China, the role of the Chinese rice agricultural expansion, their trading role in the Silk Route, the Han commanderies are all real fact and their significance as a major sphere of interaction that has to be contended with. There are many possible scenarios for various complicated issues, and you cannot make simplistic statements or conclusions such as you have made – and you cannot be taken seriously least of all assertions about “invasions” unless you begin to show you are able to consider the issue from all angles. While we are aware of certain influences or lineages are clearly Korean and we mean to identify them as such, the extent of interactions and when and where the interactions took place and to what extent they took root have to be proven for each and every location…and not with the clumsy one-shot comments you try to serve up. Korea was not a unified Korean state until fairly late in time around the time Japan became a unified state, unification stories based on Korean myths are just as unacceptable as myths from the Kojiki. Just because you call everything Korean does not make it so. A Puyo tribe isn’t necessarily Korean just because you assume it is. Most of the tribes and chiefdoms were fighting each other all throughout. As for the Yayoi expansion, Yayoi does not equal Korean – you cannot explain away why there are so few dolmens, why Jomon pottery can be shown to have evolved into Yayoi styles, why three types of rice genes that are found throughout Japan side by side with Japanese rice genes, two of them are not to be found in Korea. Why Jomon style burials can be found side by side with Yayoi ones in some settlements. The fighting that went on during Yayoi expansion has an alternative explanation, the Korean lineages that trickled in had to fight for land and territory in order to farm their rice. They had to fight with both indigenous tribes and migrants from China. Maps can be drawn to show areas where those lineages settled, show clan shrines and the trail of fighting. Archaeology doesn’t back up your “invade and conquer theory” and certainly no where to the extent you imply. Dolmens were very few, stone slab tombs limited to northern Kyushu and Kumamoto. Burial styles continued to show up so many variations of styles until mid or 3rd century BC. Evolution of keyhole tombs were earlier in Japan than the very very few in Korea and the experimentation of forms before the keyhole shape was settled upon took place in Japan and then the standardization of shapes and sizes according to rank all over the country showed some kind of political alliance or compromise with regional chiefdoms or kings taking place. The mythical structure of Kojiki and Nihongi compared with the regional fudoki records strongly suggest that the weaving of the various regional clan stories and myths were all a means of coopting the allegiance of regional powers into accepting central authority and centrally planned order rather than by coercion and force although some show of force was used as a means of persuasion with their carrot and stick policy. The huge exchange of mirrors that took place between every part of the country also shows the pattern of alliances and cooperation barring the opposition of the “land of the hairy men”. Alliance by political unions with daughters of regional kings was clearly used as well. The world of pastoral nomadism was a very fluid world with rich interacting spheres – where bronze technology first began, where the first mirrors were produced, where shaman ideas about death, sacred trees, megalithic technology, kurgan and horse technology obviously have a long trail and history that stretches across from Europe, the Middle East, the Volga and the Caucasus, and together with the genetic trail, researchers are only beginning to understand all the deep connections. This is what we are all about – ferretting out all those deep demic and cultural connections. By the same kind of logic that you have been using to assert that Japan is no more than conquered Korean territory, we might as well call Korea and all of the tribes until the Silla unification conquered Mongol territory and Koreans merely Buryat Mongol spawn or such…how would you like to have your arguments turned upon you like that? If you cannot or will not add to or contribute with constructive comments or in a intelligent unbiased way with new information, then please refrain from commenting at all.

  5. Your logic need correction. You accuse me Koreans are bias and nationalistic?? China: WW2-Cultural Revolution. China Communist Party destroyed China cultural essence by brainwashing 1.2 billion people with China communist ideology. So what makes you think China DNA or China Racial origin is correct. Japan: Meiji Period- end of WW2 ( Past and Present) Japan has changed there history more then 200 times. Specially Korea and Japan historical and racial connection. Even though Japan Fascist Movement during Meiji Period and After WWII tried very hard to erase Korean racial and cultural essence from Japanese people and culture. I truly think blood kinship is deeper then Japan Island water. Read Koryo, Nara ( Wikipedia) Japan first capital before Nara, Kyoto, and Tokyo. It was called Kudura Capital. ( I don’t see and hear any Chinese name theme capital establishment in Japan). Your ear was theory need alot of work. Human geography or Cultural geography carries more weight then human earwax. Yangze ( China) geographic climate is different from Manchuria. Manchuria geographic climate is different from Korean Peninsula. Korean Peninsula geographic climate is different from China and Japan island. Japan has much more humidity and hot then Korean peninsula. This is a reason Japan invented vinegar rice/ sushi, eat natto/bean in there diet. Food and Climate makes human ear wax to change. Like Korean/Manchurian genes 02b is very distinctive Korean Gene Mark that is shared by 70 percent modern day Japanese.

    • We should focus on the topic at hand: Earwax genetics is scientific and internationally peer-reviewed published work. Follow the citations at the page linked next – and you will see that studies on the ABCC11 gene is based on many research papers over more than 5 years, and investigations on current implications for cancer risk are also underway. See this page for an explanation of the cultural and human geography aspects of the human adaptations that led to the gene’s concentration in East Asians before you throw out what the scientific community is willing to consider. this pag

    • “Japan has much more humidity and hot then Korean peninsula. This is a reason Japan invented vinegar rice/ sushi, eat natto/bean in there diet.”???!!! Even the Japanese themselves do not take credit for something they did not invent.

      Vinegar first produced from rice came to Japan in the 5th century. Source: “Su-no-sato” Vinegar Museum Handa(a small town on the east coast of the Chita Peninsula, south of Nagoya city). Though it is may be probable that the Japanese knew how to make and use vinegar much earlier along with wine-brewing, the first documentation of vinegar was during the reign of Emperor Ojin, about 399-404 A.D.[According to another Japanese vinegar manufacturer Muso, vinegar was introduced around the 7th century (originally, rice vinegar was produced from Sake). Sushi is said to have originated in China between the 5th and the 3rd centuries BC, as a means of preserving fish in salt. Narezushi, the original form of sushi, has been made in South East Asia for centuries, and nowadays, there are still traces of it in some parts. Sushi originated in South-East Asia quite simply as a way to preserve fish by wrapping it with rice and salt and allowing it to ferment. When the ‘cured’ fish was ready to eat, the rice and salt were removed and the fermented fish was eaten. As this process spread through China and on to Japan, it was modified several times over the centuries. Rice vinegar was first added to sushi as a means of speeding up the curing process and of preserving the rice so it did not have to be discarded, but could be eaten along with the fish. Eventually, rice vinegar became a critical element of sushi Source: Marukan, J. rice vinegar manufacturer. Next, the global history of vinegar.

      Vinegar is believed to have been in use since 10,000 years ago, and known to have been made first by the Babylonians in 5000 BC. Earliest archaeological evidence: traces of it have been found in Egyptian urns dating from around 3000 BC. Vinegar was probably a trade item across Europe and Central Asia because by about 3000 BC, the making of homemade vinegar was being phased out and, in 2000 BC, vinegar production was largely a commercial industry. According to Old Testament records, however, the first written account of vinegar use was in Israel as far back as 1250 BC. Cleopatra demonstrated its solvent property by dissolving precious pearls in it to win a wager that she could consume a fortune in a single meal. Hippocrates extolled its medicinal qualities and, indeed, it was probably one of our earliest remedies. The Greeks also reportedly made pickled vegetables or meats using vinegar. Biblical references show how it was much used for its soothing and healing properties. And when Hannibal, a great general, crossed the Alps with an army riding elephants, it was vinegar that helped pave the way. Source: Vinegar Institute. According to Shennong’s Herb Classic, vinegar was invented in China during the Xia Dynasty, around 2000 BC. Chinese black vinegar is made from rice, wheat, millet, sorghum, or a combination – famous Chinese black vinegars originated in the city of Zhenjiang, in the eastern coastal province of Jiangsu, China and also is produced in Tianjin and Hong Kong. It is certainly possible, and extremely likely that Chinese vinegar production techniques were learned from Central Asia/Near Eastern routes which already traded commercially produced vinegar, given the time chronology.

      As for natto: The period of Yayoi culture in Japan (roughly 300 BC to AD 200, new chronology starts from 1,000 BC) was a time of major agricultural changes. Archaeological discoveries of charred soybeans from the later Yayoi period at various sites throughout Japan (Mt. Komori remains in Senbata village, Akita prefecture, Yasuda-Oka in Yamaguchi prefecture, and Iba-Iseki in Shizuoka prefecture) indicate that soybeans were being consumed in Japan at this early date. Today in the far northern Japanese prefectures of Akita and Aomori there is a type of natto called hikiwari (“split or cracked”) natto, made from split roasted soybeans. In ancient times, people may have dry-roasted then split their soybeans before boiling them to save cooking time and fuel. If they had stored or carried the warm boiled beans in rice straw, they could well have turned into natto. Oyashin-machi in Yokote city, Akita prefecture, has long been said to be the place where hikiwari natto originated. This city is located near Senbata village and Mt. Komori, where the remains of charred soybeans mixed with Yayoi earthenware vessels dating back 2,000 years were excavated in 1930. For these reasons, natto historian Dr. Ohta thinks there is a good chance that hikiwari natto originated there in the early Yayoi period, before the Christian era, and was the most ancient ancestor of today’s natto. At least 1400 (and perhaps over 2000) years ago the Chinese were producing a fermented soyfood that they called tan-shih (“mild, light-colored soy nuggets”) or kan-shih (“sweet soy nuggets”), a salt-free ancestor of the Chinese soyfood sold today as “salted (or fermented) black soybeans.” A description of the process for making tan-shih appears in the Ch’i-min yao-shu , the world’s first encyclopedia of agriculture, written in AD 535. Records show that Ganjin, a famous blind Buddhist priest, brought 1,428 gallons of salt-free soy nuggets with him to Japan in AD 754. The Japanese could have developed natto from this imported Chinese product, although there are no records indicating that they did. Source: History of Natto The soybean has been used in China for 5,000 years as a food and a component of drugs. (Although “The History of Soybean Production” says: China is the home of both the wild ancestor and the domesticated soybean: Soybeans were first domesticated, emerged as a domesticate during the Zhou Dynasty in the eastern half of north China in about the 11th century BC. The oldest records appear in bronze inscriptions and in early writings that date not much earlier than the 11th century. Since domestication is a process of trial and error and is not a time-datable event, this process probably took place during the Shang dynasty (ca 1500-1100 B.C.) (Ho 1969; and Dr Theodore Hymowitz 1970; Dr Keith Smith’s Soybeans: History and Future ). According to the ancient Chinese myth, in 2853 BC, the legendary Emperor Shennong of China proclaimed that five plants were sacred: soybeans, rice, wheat, barley, and millet. However, soy in particular was revered for its root structure as a means of crop rotation. Cultivation of soybeans was long confined chiefly to China, but gradually spread to other countries, including Korea and Japan. However, soybean cultivation in Korea is shown to have started only 1,000 BC while the most recent research and news shows Japanese soybean cultivation began around 5,000 years ago, very close to Chinese period. The earliest known name for the soybean was shu , a term used in north China as early as the 11th century BC. The term dadou (ta-tou; literally “great bean”) came to be the standard Mandarin term for the soybean, as it is today. According to the P’ei-wen yun-fu, a famous dictionary of literary phrases, the term dadou first appeared in the Huai-nan tzu written in about 130 BC. This book was written by scholars at the court of Lord Liu An of Huai-nan, the man traditionally named as the discoverer of tofu. The term dadou was widely used during the Han dynasty; both Ts’ui shih and Fansheng in their books on farming techniques mention cultivation of dadou and its use in famine relief. In Japan today these same characters (logographs) are used to write the word soybean, but they are pronounced “daizu,” a pronunciation very close to that of southern Chinese dialects, a term which first appeared in the classic Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters) in AD 712 (Philippi 1968). Yomiuri News: A research team has found evidence suggesting soybeans were cultivated in Japan about 5,000 years ago. The team, which includes officials of Yamanashi Prefectural Museum of Art, announced recently traces of the nation’s oldest cultivated species of soybeans had been found in a clay pot excavated in Hokuto, Yamanashi Prefecture. The pot, which dates back to the Jomon period (ca 10,000 B.C.-ca 300 B.C.), had a cavity on the tip of a fractured handle in which the researchers believe a soybean became embedded. Traces of soybeans have previously been found in late Jomon period pottery dating back about 3,500 years that has been excavated in Kumamoto and other prefectures in Kyushu. However, the pot excavated from Sakenomiba remains in Nagasakacho, Hokuto, in 1995, dates back a further 1,500 years. Current genetics studies are divided – the 2010 study pinpoints south China as the origin of the domesticated soybean See “A single origin and bottleneck….”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20566681 while the earlier 2008 says “the first molecular evidence for the hypotheses that the origin of cultivated soybean is the Yellow River region”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18587557 Another study suggests the possibility that soybeans may even have been indigenous since the predominant haplotype in soybeans is 6:1 Japanese: south China.: ” Around 75% of the cultivated accessions tested possessed a common haplotype (no. 49), which was detected in only seven wild accessions, six from southern Japan and one from southern China. The predominant haplotype in the cultigen may therefore have originated from a rare haplotype of the wild soybean that is presently distributed in the southern areas of Japan and China. The remaining seven haplotypes in the cultigen were distributed regionally, and except for three rare haplotypes, largely overlapped with the distributions of wild accessions with the same respective haplotypes. Our results strongly suggest that the cultivated soybeans with different cpDNA haplotypes originated independently in different regions from different wild gene pools and/or hybrid swarms between cultivated and wild forms.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12582476

    • Specifically addressing your points on research on O haplogroup. Citing research “Y-chromosomal DNA haplogroups and their implications for the dual origins of Koreans by an international team with more Korean scholars than Japanese or Chinese (4:2:3) the origin of all O hgs and sublineages were stated to have emerged out of China south of Yangtze River, including those that reached Japan:

      Although haplogroup O-LINE1 was found at moderate to low frequencies in all the east Asian populations examined (8.5% overall), Han Chinese have the highest frequency of this L1 retroposon insertion polymorphism (15%). We therefore suspect that this lineage might have emerged in China (probably southern China) and been carried south and east, eventually extending into the surrounding regions. This result is consistent with recent surveys showing that O-LINE1 Y-chromosomes are present at high frequencies in samples of the Han Chinese and two minority populations, the Tujia and Miao from Hunan located in the southern areas of the Yangtze River (Santos et al. 2000; Kwak and Kim 2001). The moderate frequency of haplogroup O-LINE1 Y-chromosomes in the Korean population (12.5%) may have resulted from its interaction with Chinese populations. Southeast Asian populations, except for the Philippines, are characterized by a high frequency of haplogroup O-M95 (16.7%; Table 2, Fig. 2). This result is concordant with recent surveys carried out by Su et al. (1999) and Kayser et al. (2003). Based on the result of the O-M95 Y-chromosome distribution, Koreans are not closely related to the most southern east Asians but tend to be more related to the population of southern-to-northern China.

      The prevalence of haplogroups carrying the SRY+465-T allele in Korean and Japanese populations suggests a strong genetic affinity between these two populations (Tables 1 and 2, Fig. 2). Haplogroup O-47z Y-chromosomes are direct descendants (a sublineage) of haplogroup O-SRY+465 (Fig. 1). Shinka et al. (1999) reported that Y-chromosomes carrying the SRY+465-T allele were not present in most European and African males examined in their survey. Lin et al. (1994) suggested that the O-47z Y-chromosomes (Y2 allele) might have originated from an ancestral population in Henan or southern parts of Shanxi near the Yellow River in China. Many ancient Chinese moved from the estuary of the Yellow River to the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River ~4,000 years ago (Ruofu and Yip 1993; Su et al. 2000). With increasing political chaos in the Chinese mainland during its Warring Period (476–221 BC), many Chinese moved further southward and eastward, and eventually inhabited all of China (Eberhard 1980). There is also historical evidence that many Chinese fled and sought refuge in the Korean Ancient Chosun during the Warring Period (Yun 1998; Choi and Rhee 2001). In addition, archeological evidence indicates that rice cultivation had spread to all parts of the Korean peninsula around 1,000 BC, introduced from the Yangtze River basin in southern China (Choi and Rhee 2001). The recent range expansion and introduction of rice cultivation from southern China may have resulted in the appearance of Y-chromosomal lineages carrying haplogroup O-M175-derived markers in Korea.
      Recent surveys have also inferred that a large infusion of haplogroup O-47z Y-chromosomes entered Japan with the Yayoi migration from the Korean peninsula starting 2,300 years ago (Hammer and Horai 1995; Altheide and Hammer 1997). Since the Y-chromosome lineage carrying the SRY+465-T mutation is a direct ancestor to haplogroup O-47z (Fig. 1), we analyzed Y-STR variation in those individuals with the SRY+465-T mutation (59 Korean and Japanese individuals; Table 5). The coalescence time was again dependent on the demographic model, but assuming a constant size followed by expansion, a time of 2,800 (1,100–5,700) years was obtained, consistent with its spread at the time of the Yayoi migration. The Y-STR haplotype diversity in those individuals with the SRY+465-T mutation in Korea (0.832) is much higher than that of Japan (0.609; Table 5). Therefore, these results provide convincing evidence for recent male migration, originally from China, into Japan moving through Korea.”
      “… In conclusion, the peopling of Korea can be seen as a complex process with an initial northern Asian settlement followed by several migrations, mostly from southern-to-northern China

  6. Korguryo, Baekje, Kaya, Balhae Kingdom played important role in Japan island unification. Korean Migration always have played important role ” human genes, culture, war expansion” in Prehistoric – Asuka Period. Korean Peninsula had Korean Kingdoms expanding from Manchuria and Korean Peninsula. I don’t get your logic by saying Korean Peninsula never was unified state before Japan. Korean Peninsula had Three Korean Kingdoms which it was uniquely unified Korean state unlike Island Japan. Japan never had Kingdoms they had four island. Kingdoms and having four island is very different.

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